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Rinodina confragosa, section of thallus, mounted in an alcoholic solution of Pd, showing the Pd+ yellow reaction (mainly confined to the cortex). When the thallus of this species is tested with Pd using a simple spot test, the reaction may be inapparent (leading to potential confusion with R. beccariana). If there is uncertainty, spot tests are best performed by adding the reagent to a section mounted initially in water.

Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith