The Paxillus involutus (Boletales, Paxillaceae) complex in Europe: Genetic diversity and morphological description of the new species Paxillus cuprinus, typification of P. involutus s.s., and synthesis of species boundaries

Publication Type:Journal Article
Year of Publication:2014
Authors:P. Jargeat, Chaumeton, J. - P., Navaud, O., Vizzini, A., Gryta, H.
Pagination:12 - 31
Date Published:2014/1//
ISBN Number:1878-6146
Keywords:Barcoding, Ecological traits, Ectomycorrhizal fungi, Morphometry, Taxonomy

AbstractPaxillus involutus is a model species for ecological or physiological studies of ectomycorrhizal agaricomycetes. Three to six groups or species linked to it have been ecologically and morphologically distinguished. Phylogenetic studies have revealed the existence of four species in Europe: Paxillus ammoniavirescens, Paxillus obscurisporus, P. involutus, and a fourth as yet not described species. We studied 47 collections from 24 French and Italian locations, supplemented with GenBank data, in order to genetically and taxonomically delineate these species. Phylogenetic analyses of three nuclear DNA regions (rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), tef1-α, and gpd) confirmed the four European species. Morphology, culture, and ecology features allowed us to delineate species boundaries and to describe the fourth species we named Paxillus cuprinus since it turns coppery with age. As there is no existing original herbarium specimen for P. involutus, one of our collections was chosen as the epitype. The low genetic diversity found in P. cuprinus correlates with stable morphological traits (basidiome colour, ovoid–amygdaliform spores with an apical constriction) and with ecological preferences (association with Betulaceae in open and temperate areas). In contrast, P. ammoniavirescens is characterized by a high genetic diversity and a high variation of its morphological and ecological features.

Short Title:Fungal Biology
Citation Key:3916
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith