Thallus: basal squamules to 0.5 cm long, 0.2-1 mm wide, numerous, elongate, greatly dissected, often coralloid-branched, ± ascending, often coarsely granular-sorediate, forming crowded, compact, ± continuous spreading mat-like swards. Upper surface pale to dark grey, lower surface white. Podetia to 0.5 (-2) cm tall, rather rare, often conspicuously elevated above the basal squamules, irregular, deformed, contorted, sometimes flattened and very irregularly branched, often appearing ± subcoralloid, often ± covered in small isidia-like granules and partly decorticate, with scattered or numerous squamules and granules, fissured with gaping holes when well-developed. Anamorph: conidiomata pycnidia, dark brown-black, on the upper surface of basal squamules. Teleomorph: ascomata apothecia, small, dark brown, at the tips of podetia, often on extended projections, mostly clustered. Chemistry: thallus C–, K+ yellow, KC–, Pd+ yellow, UV– (thamnolic and, restricted to apothecia, ± barbatic acids).