Thallus: podetia to 2 cm tall, often shorter, pale to dark grey, ± tinged brown in exposed sites, without scyphi, simple or occasionally sparingly branched near the apices, ± entirely corticate or becoming partially decorticate especially towards the apices, rarely granular-sorediate in patches but very frequently with coarse granules, or podetia becoming ± entirely densely squamulose. Basal squamules small, inconspicuous, often tinged orange toward the base of the lower surface. Anamorph: conidiomata pycnidia, terminal on podetia. Teleomorph: ascomata apothecia, often abundant, terminal on podetia, single or clustered, strongly domed. Epithecium bright red, with crystalline material extending down between the paraphyses. Chemistry: thallus C–, K+ yellow (rare) or K– (orange pigment reacts K+ purple), KC–, Pd–, UV± blue (barbatic acid and, rarely, thamnolic acid).